A latere aperto
On the uncovered wing of the army.
A nostro conspectu
To our sight.
A nullo videbatur, ipse autem omnia videbat
Nobody saw him, and he could see everything.
A prima luce
A verbis ad verbera
From the words to the lashings.
Ab aliquo summam gratiam inire
To get from the other the greatest favour. Ab intestato: Intestate. Ab eo flumine collis nascebatur: On the border of that river straightened up a hill. Ab re frumentaria: In the provision of wheat.
Ab universo populo
Among the whole village.
From the city.
Ab urbe condita
City foundation. Roman used to give each year the name of the consul governing the city until they arranged the cronology starting from the year 743 B.C., which corresponded to the foundation of Rome.Teniendo en cuenta estos datos, para hacer el cómputo de un año determinado con el correspondiente de la era cristiana había que saber en qué año dominó el cónsul que se cite para reducirlo al de ab urbe condiga y éste (753) restarlo del año cristiano. Si el año a ab urbe condiga (de la fundación) es mayor de 753, al restar esta cifra quedar en el año correspondiente de la era cristiana.
Ab utroque latere
For both sides; side or line of kinship.
Accedat huc oportet
To this we should add.
Facts, feats, things dealt with, public acts.
Actum est de Republica
Everything is lost; or everthing was taken by the trap, as commonly said.
Actum ut supra
Made as can be read above. Its abbreviation is A.U.S. A formula frequently used in protocol compilations and other old documents.
Act. Term used in Rome in order to refer to an act causing legal effects. Under the Roman law it refers to a ius in re aliena (immovable right over a third party immovable), consisting in a rustic easementconsistente en una servidumbre real rústica de paso, which is defined by Justinian and the Digest, after Ulpiano: ius agendi vel iumentum vel vehiculum, (right to lead livestock or vehicles) along a property foreign to the dominant tenement.
Legal act. In order to be a legal act there should be more than a subject and an object with some capacity, there should also be something that creates a relation between them, this relation causing a tie or a bond that joins them which turns the legal relations from the stage of possibility to the stage of existence. This third element is the fact, which as a creator of legal effects is referred to as legal fact. When this legal fact derives from the human will it is referred to as legal act. A legal act is not the same as a legal fact. The legal act can be defined as “the fact dependant on the human will that has an influence for the origination, modification or termination of legal relations”.
For the Germans a legal act is “an expression or manifestation of the will addressed to create a legal effect (origination, modification, defense or termination of some legal relation) and proper to do so according to positive law”.
The legal acts: legitimate or ilegitimate, just or unjust, legal or ilegal, unilateral or bilateral, inter vivos (between the living) and mortis causa (by reason of death), gratuitous or onerous, formal or informal. The acts according to the positive law were formerly divided into en stricti iuris and bonae fidei (of strict law and of good faith).
The stricti iuris were the ones that interpreted strictly, for instance, the ones of special usefulness.
The ones of bonae fidei, interpreted according to equity, such as the ones of common usefulness; so the difference was that in the ones of strict law adherence had to be to the literal meaning of the words used by the parties, as oppossed to the ones of good faith, where the intention had to be observed. This distinction has lost all of its significance at present.
Act of the things. Exprssion that in the courts of the ancient Rome was equivalent to what is now referred to as in the curia as business days or periods, since it indicated the periods when the courts worked. The days when pagan parties were considered holiday.
Approach to anyone.
Ad beate vivendum
In order to live happily
Ad bestias damnare
Convicted to be eaten by the beasts
Ad captandum vulgus
To win or attract the populace
As precaution. Acquit ad cautelam is used in ecclesistical trials upon acquittal of the accused when there is doubt as to whether he has committed a crime.Under the Roman law it was also referred to as “derogatory covenant ad cautelam” the one of the testator under his testament, expressing his will that no other testament done in the future be valid, as an specific word o sign was not included.
Ad certam diem
At a fixed date.
Ad coetum geniti sumus
We are breeded for an encounter. Saying of Lucio Anneo Séneca (s. IV A.D.) to express the social nature of human beings.
To end. General title given to the final performance of anofficiate, one or more performances accompanied by the versicles of the diaca or celebrant.
In the body.
Ad decem milia annorum
In ten thousand years.
Ad frigora atque aestus vitandos
In order to avoid cold and heat.
Ad fundum o in fudum
To visit a farm.
Ad futuram memoriam
To remain for posterity or the future.
For the glory; and ironically, for nothing.
Ad graecos, Rex bene, fiant mandata calendas
Good King, put the calendas in order. Hex metro used by Elizabeth of England to answer a claim made by Philip I of Spain
Ad hanc diem
Up to date.
At public auction.
What is done or said for a specific purpose. Ex professo, to this thing.
An ad hominen argument is the one that confuses an adversary with his own words. This term also refers to the reasoning that affects severily the interests of the person one is dealing with.
Ad honorem o ad honores
It applies to the honorary position with no payment nor exercise, in which the person holding it does not pursue any financial purpose but the honor and pleasure of holding it. It is used ironically to refer to the charges and inconviniences the person in that position suffers without getting any benefits.
Ad hostes contendere
March against the enemies.
Ad huc stat
Freemasonry expression, engraved as a motto under a broken column.
Ad huc sub iudice lis est
The case is still in the judge’s hands. It means that a matter was not solved or that there is no solution for an issue yet.
Ad hunc modum
In this way.
Expression used in music to explain that a composition must be played with anger, for instance, quickly.
Ad iudicem dicere
Speak before the judge.
Ad maiorem Dei gloriam
Used for the first time in the Canones et Decreta aecumenici concilii Tridentini (1542-60). It is sometimes used for other purposes, like ad maiorem rei litterariae gloriam, Ad maiorem regis gloriam (to the greater glory of the king).
On one side. Reference or note made in that section of the writing, work, etc.
Ad me redeat oportet
It is better that it comes back to me.
Ad meliorem fortunam
Equal to: for better circumstances.
This is the phrase used to designate one of the most cruel punishments applied to those who professed Christianism. Calistrato (Athen’s speaker of the IV century BC admired by Demosthenes) describes it as the maxima mortis sentence (maximum death sentence). In ministerium Metallicorum (in the ministry of the metallic) was the phrase used to express the destiny of the condemned.
According to way and manner.
Ad nauseam usque
Until provoking nauseas.
Ad nihilum redigere
Up to what is known, up to knowledge.
At pleasure, at will.
Ad omnia summa
For all the biggest things.
Towards fathers. To meet ancestors.
Ad pedem litterae
Forever. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam (for perpetual memory of the issue).
Ad praesens ova cras pullis sunt meliora
Today’s eggs are more valuable than tomorrow’s hens. In English: a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
For the purposes of evidence.
To whom. It is used to express, in legal terminology, the fact of giving until it is counted. On the contrary, the expression a quo is used to designate the fact of giving from what it is counted.
Equal to the case, issue. In English: straight to the point. It is used to call the attention of an interlocutor about the main issue.
Ad rem publicam
Start to deal with the public interests
Ad sollicitandas civitates
To take possession of the cities
Ad sueta portula
The customary door
To the most
Till perfection. Figurative expression taken by Horace (65-8 B.C.), from the habit of workers to polish with the nail.
Ad urbem esse
To be close to the city
To the use of. The ceremony ad usum is celebrated
Close to the letter
To this word…it should be observed that, this reminds me. Similar to the Spanish: by the way.
Adde parum parvo, magnus acervus erit
Add a little to a little and you will have a great amount. Equivalent to an old saying:poquito a poco hila la vieja el capo, or many fews make a lot.
Addendum eodem est ut
To this still must be added that…
Having the auspices been favourable.
The auspices having been favorable.
Adjudication of property, done by the Master (teacher) to the one having offered a higher price in compulsory sales of properties for unfulfillment of duties (see Bonorum venditio)
Addictio bonorum libertatum servandorum causa
Transfer of the property in order to preserve freedom. This expression is used to designate the allocation of the vacant succession to a third party or a slave who was claiming it, by posting a bond to guarantee payment to creditors, this was introduced so that the manumissions established in a will could take effect.
Debtor’s arrest. In Roman Law the insolvent debtor who had been allocated to the creditor in order that the latter could collect his debt, was called addictus. Initially, the condemnatio (sentence) delivered by the judge did not confer any rights upon the debtor’s property, but upon the debtor. In case debtor had neither paid nor presented a guarantor (vindex) within thirty days after the sentence, he could be allocated to the creditor if the latter filed the manus injectio, thus becoming the addictus, a term that comes from addictio (allocation) the magistrate ordered. The XII Tables established in detail the weight of the chains that could be used and how much food could be given to him while he was in custody at the creditor’s house. The Addictus and the slave were not on an equal footing, as the addictus was free, he could reach a compromise with his creditor and pay. The XII Tables obliged the creditor to take the addictus to the public market three consecutive times during this period of 60 days (tertiis nundinis) and say aloud his name, his debt and its amount in order to find any third party who may be willing to free him. If after that sixty-day term neither the addictus nor any third party had paid the debt, the creditor may sell the addictus abroad as a slave (trans Tiberim) or put him to death, acquiring title to his property, to which he succeeded by virtue of capitis deminutio (statute of limitations, loss of civil rights) in the first case, and of death, in the second one. Furthermore, considering the existence of more that one creditor, the XII Tables stated that (notwithstanding the possibility of selling him and sharing the price and his property) they may also share his body: partis secanto. If plus minusve in fraude esto (proportionally, if more or less there was fraud), there being no issue in one of them taking more than another one (Table III, De rebus creditis). Extensive discussions were held regarding whether this text must be interpreted literally or not; the affirmative answer being the safest. Nevertheless, it must be said that this procedure was not applied much, Girard points that, undoubtedly, the most used practice was to extend custody until full payment was made. The debtor’s addictio is based on the nexum (obligation, sale contract); for that reason when the nexum disappeared, the addictio became weaker. The Poetelia Papiria law, enacted in Rome in 428, softened the addicti’s situation by prohibiting creditors from putting the debtor to death or selling him and by abolishing the 60-day term for detention; the lex Coloniae Genitivae Iuliae still mentions the chains, but not slavery or death. In general terms, it can be stated that the debtor’s addicitio was replaced by prison, which in later Law was applied in State prisons and by the proscriptio et venditio bonorum (proscription and sale of goods). This institution was not proper of Roman Law, modern investigations discovered that the Salic law contained similar provisions to those of the XII Tables and that the same happened with Scandinavian laws.
Addictio in diem
This is the term used to refer to an agreement ancillary to the sale contract, by virtue of which the parties agree that the seller will have, until a certain date, the right to assign the object to another person who may make a better offer than that one agreed upon in the sale contract. The formula used for this agreement, as the Digest mentions, was: Ille fundus, centum esto tibi emptus, nisi si quis intra kalendas januarias proximas meliorem conditionem fecerit quo res a domino habeat (that fund you bought for a hundred, except you receive a better offer on the first day of January, in which case the owner’s object is divided). It is an archaic formula that, as it can be clearly noticed, is only illustrative.
Addictio in diem
The nature of this agreement is considered from two points of view: as if its aim was to make the sale conditional and as a cancellation agreement, maintaining the sale pure and simple. This last point of view is the most important one and the one that should prevail in case of doubt; and considering the addictio in diem effects from this point of view, they can be reduced to the following: in order that the agreement could be enforced, an offer better than the one of the original sale had to be formally made to the seller. If that was the case, the seller may claim its enforcement but he had to serve notice to the original purchaser, who, in turn, may keep the object offering equal advantages; if the purchaser did not use this formula, the seller may claim the enforcement of the agreed upon agreement by virtue of the actio venditio por la praescriptis verbis (prewriten words).
In the sense of legislations, it meant the loss of the case on the part of the non-appearing party in judicio (at Trial), having waited for him past midday.
Allocation made by a Magistrate of a thing to someone who was claiming it, when there was no opposition on the other part, in the system of legis actiones (legal actions).
Adficere aliquem laetitia, muneribus
Make someone happy, give gifts to someone.
Adligare scelere se
To get involved in a crime.
Adplicatio ad patronum
Attachment to the patron. Formula used by original Roman Law to express the relationship created by a servant towards his patron, when, in turn, the latter accepted him in his service (susceptio clientis: client’s acceptance).
Adsentio tibi ut
I agree with you that
I help my friends
Protection to the young is given.
Young already matured
With scarce talent
Against the current;upstream
Against the current; taking back the river
Adversus hostem aeterna auctoritas esto
Therefore, eternal authority to the enemy. Principle under the XII Tables XII which was misinterpreted, and which in fact it only prohinited the foreigner to take by statute of limitations the things belonging to a Roman citizen. The term hostis has the idea of guest.
Advocatorum error litigantibus non nocet
The mistake of the lawyers does not hurt the litigants. Unfortunately, modern legislators did not follow this equitable rule of the roman law.
Aedificare de suo
Build his expenses.
Aeger morbo gravi
Aequalium, adeo superiorum intolerans
Unable to bear his equals.
Aequam memento servare mentem
Remember to always keep a perfect equal character. Taken from the III Ode of the book II, first volume of Horace (65-8 B.C.), frequently repeated by different authors.
Aeque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aeque
What is advantageous for the rich and the poor.
Aequitas relligio judicantis
Equity is the religion of the one who judges. These are words of the Digest, which point out that the laws must be interpreted, when possible, in a manner favorable to the accused.
Aequitas sequitur legem
Equity should accompany the law. All the laws should be applied precisely.
Contradict justice with words.
With calm character.
Aequo pulsat pede
Hurts with equal foot. Taken from the judgment of Horace (65-8 B.C.) in one of his odes: pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauporum tabernas regumque turres (pale death hurts with equal foot the huts of the poor and the palaces of the kings); or as written by Iriarte: 1) death with equal feet; 2) measures the strawy hut; 3) and the real palaces.
Aerarium sacrum o sacrae largitiones
Holy treasure or sacred grants.
Aere alieno obrui
To be oppressed with debts.
More long lasting than bronze. It is used to indicate that a play is intended to live for ever, based on its great worth.
Debt. Name given by the Romans to the general debts, but especially to money debts.
Aes debitorem leve, gravius inimicum facit
The small debt is not a debt, and the big one creates an enemy against us.
Equestrian debt. This was the name given in Rome to the amount of money given by the State to provide each horseman with two horses.
Aes et libram
Of the copper and the scale. Popular proceeding under the roman law, so much known, that there was no contract that failed to submit itself to the copper and scale.
Barley related debt. Name of the tax created by Tarquinius the old over the widows and the orphans, in order to contribute to the military expenses, and specially, in order to feed the horses paid by the State.
Money earned in the games. The names originates from the fact that it was collected with the hand.
Military wage or payment. Portion of the tax that was levied in Rome over the persons released from the military service which was intended for the payment of salaries.
Generic term given to the copper bars that were used by the Romans as metallic instrument in the changes.
Aes triplex circa pectus
A threefold bronze around the chest. These are the words of Horace (Ode III) to describe the daring of the first sailors.
Debt of the married woman. Tribute established by Marcus Furius Camilo so called the second founder of Rome (IV century B.C.) to the single men and obliged them to marry the widows of the citizens that were killed for the country. It seems to be an application of what was established by Tarquino the old, over the widows, maiden and orphans.
Aeschines in Demosthenem invehitur, at quam rhetorice
Esquines attacks Demosthenes, but ¡with so much rhetoric! Expressions.
Evaluation of the punishment.
The childhood; generation.
Age libertate decembris
Act freely as in December. It refers to the saturnalia parties celebrated in December and during which the greater excesses were permitted.
Agere aliquid; nihil
Do something; no to do anything.
Agere hiemem sub tectis
Spend the winter with shelter.
Agere nihil aliud nisi
To do nothing else than.
Live on laziness.
Live on peace.
Agitur de parricidio
A parricide case is ventilated
Agnosco veteris, vestigia flammae
Where there was fire, there is ember. Words used by Dido, widow of Siqueo, to confess her sister she feels for Eneas the passion she feels for her first husband. (Virgilius, Aeneid, book IV).
The division of a territory.
Ahora bien, un antecedente falso evidentemente que no puede tener fuerza en ningún caso y, por tanto, dicho argumento no prueba nada. Así, se trata de probar que los ángulos de un triángulo exceden a un recto. Se prueba con tal demostración que al mi
Troop of chivalry.
Alea iacta est
The die is cast; uncertainty.
Alicui aliquid (o) de aliqua re
Narrate somebody something.
Alicui aliquid vitio
Something to somebody as defect.
Alicui bene dicere
Speak well of somebody.
Damage to somebody.
To the commands of somebody.
Alicui diem necis destinare
Set the date of somebody’s execution.
Alicui facultatem dare (o facere):
Give somebody the opportunity.
Alicui gratias referre:
Give somebody signs of recognition.
Dissatisfaction to somebody.
Gifts to somebody.
Alicui nomen do
I give somebody a name.
Alicui rei nomen dare
To give a name to a thing.
Alicuius rei memoriam deponere
Let forget the memory of something.
Alii aliter tradunt
Some tell it in a way and others tell it in another,
Aliis magis quam aliis
To some better than to others.
Alio atque alio
Here and there.
In a different manner.
Aliqua re uti et frui
Use and enjoy the properties.
Aliqua re; de aliqua re o in aliqua
Of something for something.
For some time.
Aliquem a loco, ab aliquo
Distance somebody from something, from somebody.
Aliquem a tergo
To one from the back.
Aliquem aliqua re
To somebody of something.
Aliquem aliquam rem
To someone a thing.
To one with citizenship right.
To one with clamor.
Aliquem contra (in) aliquem
To somebody against someone.
Free someone from his grief.
Aliquem de aliqua re
Keep somebody ignorant about something.
To somebody for theft.
Heir to somebody.
Aliquem in conspectum Caesaris
Somebody before the Caesar.
Aliquem in exilium
Aliquem in murum
To somebody on the wall; excite to the full; strengthen.
Somebody with defamations.
Free from somebody’s attacks.
To someone from the praise.
Teach someone the laws.
Aliquem longis epistulis
To someone with long letters.
Aliquem male habere
To one with money.
Aliquem pro amico habere
Consider someone as a friend.
To someone with beatings with a stick.
Aliquid alicui (o ab alicuo)
Remove something from somebody.
Aliquid fidei alicuius
Something to the loyalty of somebody.
Aliquid in bonis
Something among the properties.
Something as a pledge.
To die a cast.
Aliquis de militibus
One of the soldiers.
Sail from a place.
A certain number of years.
Aliter atque aliter
In another way and still in another.
Aliter sentis atque dicis
You do not speak as you think.
Alius alia via discessit
Each one took a different way.
In another way that.
To one inactive.
Alquid alicui rei
Something to the contour of something.
One day yes and another not.
The highest of the walls.
Height of the hill, depth of a river, greatness of soul.
I beg you.
A case is discussed, is made known.
For somebody’s love.
Amurcam cum aqua
Dilute oil in the water; join, mix up.
With uncertain success.
Fall to pieces, stoop to.
Annos natus maior quadraginta
Older than forty years old.
Annus locuples frugibus
Wheat plentiful year.
A year before.
Ante hostium adstare
Keep in front of the door.
Before the desired moment.
At the foot of the pulpit.
Apud maiores nostros
At our forefathers´ time.
Apud Platonem est dictum
It is said in Plato’s work.
Spring blood on the pulpit, befog, mist.
Argentum deterius est auro
Silver is inferior to gold.
Argumentum a pari (o) a simili
Argument of equality. It is the one based on reasons of similarity and equality between the proposed fact and from the one who stems from it.
Argumentum ad crumenam
Stock argument. It is raised for getting what is wanted with money when reason is lacking.
Argumentum ad ignorantiam
It refers to the argument proper to the ignorance of the person with whom we are discussing.
Argumentum ad iudicium
Argument of trial. It refers to the one that appeals to common sense.
Argumentum ad terrorem
Argument of fear. It is the one that points more to sensitivity than to intelligence, it is used a lot in oratory.
Argumentum ad verecundiam
Argument of discretion. The one who provokes the respect owed to the authority.
Argument of sticks. It is used in those cases when there being no reason, the answer is with a bludgeon, based on the law of the jungle.
Arma per pactionem tradere:
Surrender, give up the arms under a pact.
The arms for the fight.
Armis jus suum
His rights for the arms.
Master in arts. In ancient times it referred to the one who was a master in liberal arts, and at present to the one in fine arts.
Neptune plains; the sea.
At contra (o) at vero
But, on the contrary.
But it is that…
Atque adeo, atque etiam, atque adeo etiam
And still, and even, what is more.
Atque idem ego hoc contenido
And in addition I pretend this.
But with all that; however.
Auctorem esse alicuius interficiendi
Cause the death of somebody.
I hear; understand.
Aut certe, aut saltem
Or as a minimum, or at least
Or at last.
Or, probably or maybe.
Aut insanit homo aut versus facit
The man is either crazy or writes poems.
Or at least.
Or if desired.
Or at best.
Aut… aut etiam
Or… or even.
The greed with money.
Aveo scire quid agas
I am anxious to know what you do.